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    竹材的特性與防腐技術

    來源:http://www.newpaltzjournal.com 時間:2022-11-28

    我國竹資源豐富,竹材被譽為二森林資源,是木材的重要替代材料。但由于竹材比一般木材含有更多的營養物質,因而在溫暖潮濕的條件下很容易產生腐朽、霉變和蟲蛀,縮短了使用壽命。濟南防腐木研究竹材的腐朽特性及防腐技術,對合理、地利用竹材資源,緩解木材供需矛盾都具有十分重要的意義。
    China is rich in bamboo resources. Bamboo, known as the second forest resource, is an important substitute for wood. However, because bamboo contains more nutrients than ordinary wood, it is easy to decay, mildew and moth eaten under warm and humid conditions, which shortens the service life. The research on the decay characteristics and anti-corrosion technology of bamboo in Jinan is of great significance for the rational utilization of bamboo resources and the alleviation of the contradiction between supply and demand of wood.
    竹材資源狀況
    Bamboo resources
    全世界的竹類超過75屬1 250種,竹林面積約為2 200萬hm2。我國竹資源豐富,共有竹類39屬、500多種,主要分布在福建、江西、湖南、浙江、四川、河南、安徽、廣西、湖北、云南、江蘇12個省(區)的167個縣(市),我國的竹林面積約占全世界竹林面積的l/4,占全國森林面積的2.84%。因此,開發利用竹材資源,對緩解我國木材供需矛盾,進一步促進林業產業化的形成,都有現實和長遠的意義。
    There are more than 1250 species of bamboos belonging to 75 genera in the world, and the bamboo forest area is about 22 million hm2. China is rich in bamboo resources. There are 39 genera and more than 500 kinds of bamboos, which are mainly distributed in 167 counties (cities) in 12 provinces (districts) of Fujian, Jiangxi, Hunan, Zhejiang, Sichuan, Henan, Anhui, Guangxi, Hubei, Yunnan and Jiangsu. China's bamboo forest area accounts for about 1/4 of the world's bamboo forest area, accounting for 2.84% of the national forest area. Therefore, the development and utilization of bamboo resources is of practical and long-term significance to alleviate the contradiction between supply and demand of wood in China and further promote the formation of forestry industrialization.
    竹材的防腐
    Anti corrosion of bamboo
    竹子生長快、產量高、成材早、用途廣。與木材相比,竹材在結構與性質上又有一定的區別,表現在竹材的強度高、韌性好、硬度大,其主要的力學性能可與硬闊葉樹材相媲美,作為工程結構材料具有廣闊的開發應用前景。但是,竹材含有較多的營養物質,其中蛋白質含量為1.5%~6.0%、可溶性糖類約為2%、淀粉類為2.02%~5.18%、脂肪和蠟質類為2.18%~3.55%,竹材和竹制品在溫暖潮濕的環境條件下保存和使用時很容易產生腐朽、霉變和蟲蛀,因此,竹材的防腐處理顯得更為重要。
    Bamboo grows fast, has a high yield, becomes a timber early, and has a wide range of uses. Compared with wood, bamboo has some differences in structure and properties, which are shown in its high strength, good toughness, and high hardness. Its main mechanical properties can be comparable to that of hard hardwood. As an engineering structural material, bamboo has broad development and application prospects. However, bamboo materials contain more nutrients, including protein content of 1.5% ~ 6.0%, soluble sugar of about 2%, starch of 2.02% ~ 5.18%, fat and wax of 2.18% ~ 3.55%. Bamboo materials and bamboo products are prone to decay, mildew and moth eaten when stored and used in warm and humid environment. Therefore, the preservative treatment of bamboo materials is more important.
    竹材的防腐處理大多借鑒木材的防腐處理方法,然而,由于竹材和木材的解剖構造存在很大差異,因此,不能機械地套用木材的防腐處理方法。
    The antiseptic treatment of bamboo is mostly based on the antiseptic treatment of wood. However, due to the great difference in anatomical structure between bamboo and wood, the antiseptic treatment of wood cannot be mechanically applied.
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